Introduction to Management

Organizational Management

“Management is about making plans and implements them effectively.”

“Management is a process of getting activities completed effectively and efficiently with and through other people.”

“Management is doing things efficiently and effectively.”

Efficiency is to get maximum output from minimum input.
It is to get maximum profit from minimum resources.

Effectiveness means goal attainment and doing right things at the right time.

  • Minimum resource utilization
  • Vital part of management
  • Goal/Objects Attainment and goals should be achievable.
  • Management should be efficient as well as effective.
  • A person can be efficient without being effective. He may get the things done with minimum sources but as far objective isn’t met it’s not effective.

Need / Importance of Management

Good Management is required for:

  • Optimum utilization of resources (Cost competitiveness)
  • Motivates personnel (Effectively utilize human resource)
  • Facilitates innovation (Explore opportunities)
  • Improve Efficiency (get the things fast or efficiently and effectively)
  • Competitive Advantage (Survive and win over competitors)

Managerial Decision Making

Managerial Decision Making

“Decision making is a process of developing a commitment to some course of action.”

Characteristics of Decision Making

1. Element of Risk:
Decision making is always charged with Risk. The probability of success is always less than 100. The decisions are either major or minor the risk is there.

2. Uncertainty:
The decision making process is uncertain. You never know what will be the outcome. The final result is totally unpredictable.

3. Lack of Structure:
Decision making process is implemented on the newly faced problems which haven’t already been solved. These are mostly non-routine problems and the solution process is un-structured that means there aren’t specified rules or procedures to follow.

4. Conflict:
Whenever a decision is going to be made there will be an opposing party so conflicts may arise. That could be a pressure group or employees or anything. The conflict may arise within our self too.

Decision Making Process

1. Identify the problem:
The first step in decision making is to identify the problem, what actually the problem is? Whether there is some discrepancy.

2. Generate Alternatives:
The second step is to generate alternatives. Look for the possible solutions of the problem, talk to relevant people, call meetings, collect the required information and get the ideas from other people whether they are feasible or not. The ideas should be creative and originative.

3. Evaluation of Alternatives:
Now list all the possible alternatives and evaluate them. Which are feasible and practically implement able? Also look for the resources needs to implement those ideas. Then finally list the best possible ones.

4. Make a Choice:
After evaluating, get the best possible solutions with you and then give them another look to choose the best of the best. The solution with few negatives and less cost with high returns will be selected.

5. Implementation:
Now the selected solution will be implemented practically and resources will be allocated to do the job.

6. Evaluate or Monitor the Decision:
After implementation, look if the things are going the way they were planned. Whether the problem is resolved or there are some lapses. If the selected solution is unable to solve the problem then choose another alternative solution.

Pros and Cons of Decision Making Process

Decision making made in groups has following advantages:

1. Quality of Decision:
When so many people will be involved the quality of decision will improve.

2. Diversification:
There will be variety in the decision and complete understanding of the scenario.

3. Commitment:
When decisions are made in groups, the consent of other members is inclusive so they will be committed to the decision.


1. Time Consuming:
Group decision making is time consuming as it’s difficult to gather people on one place frequently. The process will take some time to complete.

2. Dominating Individuals:
The dominating individuals may influence the decision, so the dominating personalities are discouraged in group decision making.

3. No Coalitions:
There shouldn’t be groups within a group. The coalition should be discouraged in group decision making as a particular sub-group may influence the decision.

4. Criticism:
Criticism should be constructive and positive. The negative criticism should be deterred and the personal differences should be kept aside.

Managerial Roles

Managerial Roles

These are the managerial roles defined by “Henry Mintzberg”

1. Interpersonal Roles

1.1 Figurehead:
Social, inspirational, legal and ceremonial duties must be carried out. The manager is a symbol and must be on-hand for people/agencies that will only deal with him/her because of status and authority.

1.2 The leader role:
This is at the heart of the manager-subordinate relationship and managerial power and pervasive where subordinates are involved even where perhaps the relationship is not directly interpersonal. The manager
• defines the structures and environments within which sub-ordinates work and are motivated.
• oversees and questions activities to keep them alert.
• selects, encourages, promotes and disciplines.
• tries to balance subordinate and organisational needs for efficient operations.

1.3 Liaison:
This is the manager as an information and communication centre. It is vital to build up favours. Networking skills to shape maintain internal and external contacts for information exchange are essential. These ontacts give access to “databases”- facts, requirements, probabilities.

2. Informational Role:

2.1 As ‘monitor’
– the manager seeks/receives information from many sources to evaluate the organisation’s performance, well-being and situation. Monitoring of internal operations, external events, ideas, trends, analysis and pressures is vital. Information to detect changes, problems & opportunities and to construct decision-making scenarios can be current/historic, tangible (hard) or soft, documented or non-documented.This role is about building and using an intelligence system. The manager must install and maintain this information system; by building contacts & training staff to deliver “information”.

2.2 As disseminator
– the manager brings external views into his/her organisation and facilitiates internal information flows between subordinates (factual or value-based).
The preferences of significant people are received and assimilated. The manager interprets/disseminates information to subordinates e.g. policies, rules, regulations. Values are also desseminated via conversations laced with imperatives and signs/icons about what is regarded as imprtant or what ‘we believe in’.
There is a dilemma of delegation. Only the manager has the data for many decisions and often in the wrong form (verbal/memory vs. paper). Sharing is time-consuming and difficult. He/she and staff may be already overloaded. Communication consumes time. The adage ‘if you want to get things done, (it is best to do it yourself’ comes to mind. Why might this be a driver of managerial behaviour (reluctance or constraints on the ability to delegate)?

2.3 As spokesman
– the manager informs and lobbies others (external to his/her own organisational group). Key influencers and stakeholders are kept informed of performances, plans & policies. For outsiders, the manager is an expert in the field in which his/her organisation operates.

3. Decisional Roles:

3.1 As initiator/changer
A senior manager is responsible for his/her organisation’s strategy-making system – generating and linking important decisions. He/she has the authority, information and capacity for control and integration over important decisions.
– he/she designs and initiates much of the controlled change in the organisation. Gaps are identified, improvement programmes defined. The manager initiates a series of related decisions/activities to achieve actual improvement. Improvement projects may be involved at various levels. The manager can
1. delegate all design responsibility selecting and even replace subordinates.
2. empower subordinates with responsibility for the design of the improvement programme but e.g. define the parameters/limits and veto or give the go-ahead on options.
3. supervise design directly.
Senior managers may have many projects at various development stages (emergent/dormant/nearly-ready) working on each periodically interspersed by waiting periods for information feedback or progress etc. Projects roll-on and roll-off,

3.2 the disturbance handler
– is a generalist role i.e. taking charge when the organisation hits an iceberg unexpectedly and where there is no clear programmed response. Disturbances may arise from staff, resources, threats or because others make mistakes or innovation has unexpected consequences. The role involves stepping in to calm matters, evaluate, re-allocate, support – removing the thorn – buying time. The metaphors here are
If you are up to your backside in alligators it is no use talking about draining the swamp.
Stop the bleeding as only then can you take care of the long term health of the patient. (not Mintzberg’s anecdote)

3.3 As resource allocator
– the manager oversees allocation of all resources (£, staff, reputation). This involves:
0. scheduling own time
1. programming work
2. authorising actions
With an eye to the diary (scheduling) the manager implicitly sets organisational priorities. Time and access involve opportunity costs. What fails to reach him/her, fails to get support.
The managerial task is to ensure the basic work system is in place and to programme staff overloads – what to do, by whom, what processing structures will be used.
Authorising major decisions before implementation is a control over resource allocation. This enables coordinative interventions e.g. authorisation within a policy or budgeting process in comparison to ad-hoc interventions. With limited time, complex issues and staff proposals that cannot be dismissed lightly, the manager may decide on the proposer rather than proposal.
To help evaluation processes, managers develop models and plans in their heads (they construe the relationships and signifiers in the situation). These models/constructions encompass rules, imperatives, criteria and preferences to evaluate proposals against. Loose, flexible and implicit plans are up-dated with new information.

3.4 The negotiator
– takes charge over important negotiating activities with other organisations. The spokesman, figurehead and resource allocator roles demand this.

Personal Management

Personal Management

1. Look and Learn
Learn from success as well as failures of others.

2. Set life priorities

Make priorities in life, we have multiple roles to play so we have to set our priorities.

3. Set Targets

Always set objectives and targets. Objectives should be clear and achievable.

4. Question Everything

Be Curious, never hesitate to ask questions whether to boss, subordinate or colleague.

5. Assess your progress

Assess or evaluate the work done on daily basis. Did you achieve your target for the day or not.

6. Assess yourself

Do SWOT (Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats) analysis.

7. Make Goals

Make short term as well long term goals.

8. Evaluate Time

Use time in most efficient and effective way. Don’t waste your time.

9. Control Stress

Manage to avoid anxiety or stress to the maximum.

10. Use a Junk pile

Don’t waste time on junk or unnecessary things. Keep them aside.

11. Welcome Changes

Never resist to new changes it will lead to the problems.

12. Think Physical

Take some time out, never work for long hours. Get yourself relaxed when feel tired.

13. Think Positive

Never accept defeat till the last. Don’t look at negative sides always think about positives.

14. Be Decisive

Make decisions effectively; follow the decision making process:
– Define Problems
– Examine all facts available
– Gather more facts if needed.
– Make a consultation to the people involved
– List the all possible options
– Implement and Monitor the solution

15. Delegation

Share responsibility or authority with sub ordinates.

16. Develop People

Train people, motivate them, take their opinions and ask questions.

17. Think & Win

If you are into a conflict solving, make a win-win decisions, both parties should be winner.

18. Do it now

If a conflict or problem arises, solve it as soon as possible.

19. Be a good listener

Listen to others, communication should be two way.

20. Be Humble

Accept failures and learn from them. Always open yourself for advices. “The most effective person is the person who feels proud to admit his mistakes.”