Hallmarks of Scientific Research

Main characteristics which will distinguish scientific research from common research.

1. Purposiveness

“Research should have a definite aim or purpose.”

2. Rigor

”A good theoratical base and sound methodological design give rigor to the research. Rigor indicates carefulness and degree of exactitude in research.”

3. Testability

”Scientific research lend itself to testing logically developed hypothesis to see whether or not data support the educated conjecture or hypothesis.”

4. Replicability

”The results of the test of hypothesis should be supported again and again when same type of research is conducted in other similar circumstances.”

5. Precision and Confidence

”Precision refers to the closeness of the findings to reality based on a sample. Precision reflects the degree of exactness and accuracy of the results on the basis of samples. Also known as confidence interval in statistics.
Confidence refers to the probability that our estimation are correct so that we can confidently claim that 95% of the time our results will be true and there is only 5% chance of our results being false.”

6. Objectivity

”The conclusion drawn through the interpretation of the results of data analysis should be objective that is, they should be based on facts of the findings derived from actual data and not on our own subjective or emotional values.”

7. Generalizability

”It refers to the scope of replicability of the research findings in one organizational settings to others, the wider the range of replicability of the solution generated by the research the more useful the research is to the user.”

8. Parsimony

”Simplicity in explaining the phenomenon or problem that occur in generating the solutions of the problem is preferred as compared to complex research frame work.



Since many visitor of this blog requested for examples of Scientific Research, here are few of them:

  1. How excessive use of Mobile Phone will affect Teenager’s muscular development?
  2. What Economical effects can CPEC have on Pakistan’s GDP Growth in Year 2017?
  3.  Why property values have risen to sky-high in Lahore over a period of 5 years?

Note: These are mere examples of how a research topic can be, however every teacher does have their own opinion about purpose of research hence might not accept these as answers at all.

Business Research Methods

Business Research:
“It is defined as an organized, systematic, critical, data based, objective, scientific inquire or investigation into a specific problem undertaken to find an answer.

Types of Research

There are three perspective research can be divided in.

1. Application

a. Applied Research:
“Research done with the intention of applying the results of the findings to solve specific problems currently being experienced in the organization is called applied research.”

b. Basic Research:
“Research done to enhance the understanding of certain problems that commonly occur in organizational settings and seek methods of solving them.”

2. Objective

a. Deceptive:
“A study classified to describe systematically a problem, situation or a phenomena.”

b. Correlational:
“Main emphases is to discover or establish the existence of relationship or interdependence between the two or more aspects of a situation.”

c. Explanatory:
“It attempts to clarify why and how there is a relationship between the two aspects of a situation.”

d. Exploratory:
“It is conducted with the objective either to explore an area where little is known or to investigate the possibilities of understanding a particular research study.”

3. Inquiry

a. Quantitative:
“It is a structured approach in which every thing that forms the research process that are objectives, design and structure questionnaire for the survey is pre-determined.”

b. Qualitative:
“An un-structured approach allows the flexibility in all the aspects of research process.